Please Select The State You Will Be Installing Your Alarms In To See What Legislation Laws Might Affect You.
State:
Please Select The State You Will Be Installing Your Alarms In To See What Legislation Laws Might Affect You.

Alabama

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. For all new construction hard-wired alarms are required.

CO alarms are required outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Alaska

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2006 or 2009. Code adoptions occur at the local level in Alaska.

CO alarms are required in all residential structures with fossil fuel heating appliances, attached garages or enclosed parking.

Arizona

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2009. Code adoptions occur at the local level in Arizona.

The City of Phoenix requires that solely battery-operated smoke alarms be replaced with smoke alarms with 10-year sealed lithium batteries once existing alarms expire. This amendment affects only existing dwelling units that are allowed to have solely battery-operated smoke alarms, which limits the scope of this regulation to single-family homes and apartment units built prior to 1998 in the City of Phoenix.

CO alarms are required outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Arkansas

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Code requires CO alarms on each floor of newly constructed one and two-family dwellings.

California

Smoke alarms are required in all residential settings. Hard-wired alarms are required in all new residential construction. Alarms are widely required in all bedrooms and hallways, on every level of the home.

All smoke alarms solely powered by a battery are required to feature a non-replaceable, non-removable battery that is capable of powering the smoke alarm for a minimum of 10 years.

CO alarms are required in all single and multi-family dwellings in California. Effective date: January 2011 (new one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories; July 2011 (all existing single-family homes); January 2013 (all existing dwellings)

Colorado

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2015.

CO alarms are required in new and existing single and multi-family dwellings. Effective date: July 2009 Denver: Upon expiration of currently installed battery-operated CO alarms, alarms shall be replaced with CO alarms featuring 10-year lithium batteries. Combination smoke/CO alarms are exempted from this requirement.

Connecticut

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all new one and two-family homes and in all homes offered for sale and built prior to October 2005. Effective date: October 2005 (for new construction); July 2014 (for real estate transfers)

Delaware

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2012.

CO alarms are required outside of each separate sleeping area, in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms, in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective date: January 2017 Chapter Number 349 requires the installation of hardwired, interconnected CO alarms in each sleeping area and in any room with a CO source or adjacent to an attached garage. Compliance with this requirement will be phased in, with new properties having to comply immediately (July 2018). Properties currently under construction would have until December 31, 2019, to comply, while existing properties must comply by December 31, 2020. Wilmington: CO alarms are required in all residential dwellings and mixed-use occupancies.

Florida

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Solely battery-operated smoke alarms must be powered by 10-year sealed batteries. State law allows 10-year battery-powered smoke alarms to replace hard-wired alarms in Level 1 renovations. Wirelessly interconnected and multi-sensor alarms are exempted from this battery requirement.

CO alarms are required in the new construction of every building that includes a fossil-fuel-burning heater or appliance, fireplace, or an attached garage.

Georgia

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Battery-operated smoke alarms installed in residential multi-family dwellings built before 1987 must be replaced with 10-year sealed battery smoke alarms under these conditions: if the smoke alarm is older than 10 years, needs to be replaced for any reason, does not include a date of manufacture or the dwelling’s owners cannot prove that they have a program in place to test and maintain smoke alarms and replace batteries. This requirement excludes one and two-family homes and townhomes.

CO alarms are required outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Hawaii

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

There is no statewide requirement for residential CO alarms.

Recommended Alarms:

Idaho

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Illinois

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Solely battery-powered smoke alarms are required to be powered by a non-replaceable, non-removable 10-year battery. Battery-operated smoke alarms that use low-power radio frequency wireless communication signals, Wi-Fi or other Wireless Local Area Networking capability are exempt from this new requirement. The law exempts any dwelling units and hotels within municipalities with a population greater than 1,000,000 inhabitants.

All residential dwellings must have CO alarms within 15 feet of sleeping areas.

Indiana

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Indianapolis-Marion County: In new construction, smoke alarms must be installed in each sleeping room and be arranged so that operation of any smoke alarm causes all smoke alarms to sound. If the alarm is solely powered by a battery, the battery must be non-removable, non-replaceable and capable of powering the alarm for a minimum of 10 years. Battery-operated alarms connected to a panel or using low-power wireless communication signals are exempt from this battery requirement.

There is no statewide requirement for CO alarms in Indiana.

Recommended Alarms:

Iowa

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Required smoke alarms must be dual-sensor. Both dual-sensor (photoelectric and ionization) smoke alarms and combination smoke and carbon monoxide alarms comply with this requirement.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective date: January 2010. CO alarms are required in all newly constructed and existing multi-unit dwellings and single-family rental properties. Effective date: July 1, 2018

Kansas

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC standards.

There is no statewide requirement for residential CO alarms.

Recommended Alarms:

Kentucky

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Louisville-Jefferson County: Upon sale, single and multi-family dwellings must have a hard-wired smoke alarm or a 10-year sealed battery smoke alarm.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings, town homes less than 3 stories, apartment buildings, dormitories, adult/child care facilities and assisted living facilities which contain a fuel-burning-appliance or an attached garage.

Louisiana

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

All existing one and two-family dwellings must contain, at a minimum, an operable 10-year sealed lithium battery smoke detector at the time of lease or sale. The law does not pertain to newer homes built or remodeled after 1992 that are required, by law, to feature a hardwired alarm in each sleeping area and in the hallway of each floor.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Maine

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

In new and existing single-family dwellings, a photoelectric smoke alarm must be installed within 20 feet of a kitchen or full bathroom.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings, town homes not more than three stories and multi-family dwellings. CO alarms are also required in all existing multi-family dwellings, existing single-family dwellings upon sale only, and all rental dwellings.

Maryland

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Rental occupancies where battery-operated smoke alarms are permitted (homes constructed before 1975, lodging or rooming houses, hotels, dormitories and apartment buildings) are required to have sealed, tamper-resistant alarms that include a silence/hush feature and long-life batteries upon a change in tenancy. Effective date: July 2013 Smoke alarms in one- and two-family dwellings constructed before July 1, 1975, must be AC-powered or battery-powered, provided the battery is in a sealed, tamper-resistant chamber and includes a silence/hush feature and long-life batteries. Effective date: January 2018 Baltimore and Baltimore County: Rental Licensing Regulations require hard-wired smoke detectors with battery backup to be installed in corridors outside of sleeping areas in all dwellings containing six of fewer rental units.

CO alarms are required in new single and multi-family dwellings, hotels, motels and dormitories.

Massachusetts

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction. Combination devices with two or more technologies that are incorporated into one unit shall have simulated voice and tone alarm features which clearly distinguishes between two or more events such as carbon monoxide and smoke.

The Massachusetts Comprehensive Fire Safety Code requires the installation of hardwired photoelectric smoke alarms or 10-year battery photoelectric smoke alarms in homes built or modified before 1975 prior to sale. The code exempts photoelectric battery-operated smoke alarms that use low-power radio frequency wireless communication signals, Wi-Fi or other Wireless Local Area Networking capability.

Dual-sensor or photoelectric smoke alarms are required in all newly constructed dwellings. Alarms installed within 20 feet of kitchens and full bathrooms must be photoelectric only.

CO alarms are required in single- and multi-family dwellings, boarding houses, hotels, motels, dorms, apartments, adult and child care facilities. Combination devices with two or more technologies that are incorporated into one unit shall have simulated voice and tone alarm features which clearly distinguishes between two or more events such as carbon monoxide and smoke.

Michigan

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories, and existing multi-dwelling units.

Minnesota

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all dwelling types: Newly constructed single family homes and multi-family dwelling units (effective January 2007) Existing single-family homes (effective August 2008) Existing multi-family dwellings (effective August 2009)

Mississippi

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Missouri

Missouri has no statewide requirements, though smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings.

Recommended Alarms:

Missouri has no statewide requirements for CO alarms. City of St. Louis: CO alarms are required in new and existing residential structures.

Montana

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Recommended Alarms:

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. CO alarms are required in landlord-controlled properties. Disclosure of CO alarm presence or absence is also required when transferring title.

Nebraska

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective: January 2017 Effective date: July 2011 CO alarms are required in new multi-family dwellings, as well as existing dwellings that undergo renovation, rental properties that have a change in tenancy, and existing multi-family properties that are sold and bought.

Nevada

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2012.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

New Hampshire

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in single- and multi-family dwellings built or substantially rehabbed.

New Jersey

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction. 10-year sealed battery alarms are required in existing single, double and multi-family dwellings that were constructed prior to the state's adoption of the Uniform Construction Code Act of 1975.

CO alarms are required in single and two-family homes at point of sale or transfer (effective June 1996) All new residential construction (effective April 2003) New and existing commercial buildings (effective February 2016)

New Mexico

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

New York

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Solely battery-powered smoke alarms must feature sealed, 10-year batteries. Alarms which receive their power from the electrical system of the building, fire alarm systems with smoke detectors, fire alarm devices that connect to a panel, or other devices that use a low-power radio frequency wireless communication signal are exempt Effective date: April 1, 2019 New York City: All battery-operated smoke alarms must feature a non-removable, non-replaceable battery that powers the alarm for a minimum of 10 years. Alarms must emit an audible end-of-life signal notifying consumers at the expiration of the useful life of the alarm. This requirement applies to pre-1982 buildings that were/are not required to have hard-wired alarms.

CO alarms are required in nearly all structures in the State of New York: New construction of single and two-family homes and townhomes (effective 2003) New and existing one- and two-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings, hotels, dormitories etc. (effective February 2010)

North Carolina

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Solely battery-powered smoke alarms must feature sealed, 10-year batteries. Alarms which receive their power from the electrical system of the building, fire alarm systems with smoke detectors, fire alarm devices that connect to a panel, or other devices that use a low-power radio frequency wireless communication signal are exempt Effective date: April 1, 2019 New York City: All battery-operated smoke alarms must feature a non-removable, non-replaceable battery that powers the alarm for a minimum of 10 years. Alarms must emit an audible end-of-life signal notifying consumers at the expiration of the useful life of the alarm. This requirement applies to pre-1982 buildings that were/are not required to have hard-wired alarms.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories and all rental properties.

North Dakota

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Ohio

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Cleveland: All battery-operated smoke detectors must be replaced with 10-year battery models upon their expiration. The requirement applies to both new and existing homes.

Several municipalities have adopted regulations requiring photoelectric smoke alarms. Check with your local building department for more information.

The Ohio residential smoke alarm law that requires the installation of smoke alarms with ionization and photoelectric technologies in new construction of one-, two-, and three-family dwellings.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective date: January 2013 CO alarms are required in existing multi-dwelling properties (hotels, motels, care facilities, multi-family housing, etc.) Effective date: January 2019 Cleveland: CO alarms are required in all rental dwelling units.

Oklahoma

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Oregon

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

All solely battery-operated ionization smoke alarms sold in the state must be packaged with a 10-year battery. All ionization smoke alarms must feature a hush mechanism that allows a person to temporarily disengage the alarm for a period of not more than 15 minutes.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed single and multi-family dwellings and existing single and multi-family dwellings when sold or transferred. Effective date: April 2011 CO alarms are required in all rental properties.

Pennsylvania

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

Philadelphia: Local law requires that solely battery-powered smoke alarms feature 10-year sealed batteries. One and two-family dwellings built on or after January 1, 1988, and apartment dwelling units are not affected, as those dwellings are required to have hard-wired smoke alarms.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective date: January 2010 Pennsylvania homeowners, upon the sale of their home, are required to disclose to the buyer if the structure is equipped with a CO alarm in the vicinity of each bedroom and the fossil-fuel appliance or heater. The law also requires owners of multi-family dwellings to install CO alarms in the vicinity of bedrooms and the fossil fuel appliance or heater. Effective date: June 2015 Philadelphia: CO alarms are required in all new and existing one- and two-family homes. Effective: January 2009

Rhode Island

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all one, two, and three-family dwellings; hotels; dormitories; apartment buildings; and daycares.

South Carolina

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed dwelling units and occupancies.

South Dakota

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

Tennessee

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings, townhouses, R-2, R-3 and R-4 occupancies.

Texas

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC standards.

Houston: Single-station battery-operated smoke alarms must be replaced with 10-year battery alarms upon their expiration and replacement. The law includes exemptions for additional smoke alarms that are installed beyond the building’s current requirements, as well as alarms connected to a fire alarm system.

There is no statewide requirement for residential CO alarms.

Recommended Alarms:

Utah

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2015.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one- and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective date: November 2006 CO alarms are widely required in all new and existing dwellings.

Vermont

Photoelectric smoke alarms are required to be installed near bedrooms and on each floor of newly constructed single and multi-family dwellings. They are also required to be installed before the sale or transfer of existing single-family homes. Effective date: January 2011 Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC standards.

Smoke alarms with sealed 10-year batteries are required in apartment and condominium buildings before January 1, 1994.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. CO alarms are also required upon initial occupancy or real estate transfer.

Virginia

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

West Virginia

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction.

CO alarms are required in all newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories. Effective date: July 1998 CO alarms are required in existing apartments, hotels and other group occupancies, as well as in rented one and two-family dwellings. Effective date: September 2012 CO alarms are required in all new multi-dwelling units, hotels and other group occupancies.

Wisconsin

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC standards.

Wisconsin Commercial Building Code requires the installation of 10-year sealed battery smoke alarms or hard-wired smoke alarms with battery backup in new and existing multi-family dwellings that do not exceed 60 feet in height or six stories and consist of three or more attached dwelling units. Madison and Milwaukee: All smoke alarms that use batteries as their primary power source in residential buildings must be replaced with those that include non-replaceable, non-removable 10-year batteries. Effective date: August 2010 (Madison); June 2013 (Milwaukee)

CO alarms are required in all dwelling types: New multi-family dwellings (effective October 2008) Existing multi-family dwellings (effective April 2010) New and existing one- and two-family dwellings (February 2011).

Wyoming

Smoke alarms are generally required in residential settings. Hard-wired smoke alarms are required in all new construction in local jurisdictions that have adopted IRC 2015.

CO alarms are required in newly constructed one and two-family dwellings and town homes not more than three stories.

General Information

Smoke Detector State Laws, Legislations & Requirements

It is important to make sure your home, business, motorized dwelling or indoor enclosures are up to code and meet your states legislative requirements. America's fire death rate is one of the highest per capita in the industrialized world. Fire kills approximately 3,000 and injures approximately 20,000 people each year. The majority of deaths are in homes without a working smoke alarm. A smoke alarm greatly reduces your chances of dying in a fire.

Many states have requirements on what type of alarm you need and where those alarms should be installed. Install at least one in every floor including the basement and attic and inside each sleeping area. Ensure that all members of your family can hear the smoke alarm. If someone is hearing impaired, install alarms that flash a strobe light as well as sound an alarm.

Smoke alarms are installed outside each sleeping area, in every bedroom and above stairwells. Mount alarms high on a wall or on top of the ceiling. Position wall-mounted alarms with the top of the alarm 4-12 inches (10-30 centimeter) from the ceiling. Position ceiling-mounted alarms at least 4 inches (10 centimeters) away from the nearest wall. In stairways with no doors at the top or bottom, install alarms anywhere along the path smoke would take as it traveled up the stairs. Don’t install a smoke alarm near a window, door, or forced-air register where drafts could interfere with its operation. The moving air can blow smoke away from the alarms sensor. To avoid false alarms, keep smoke alarms at least ten feet from stoves and steamy showers.

smoke alarm installation guide for your home
Carbon Monoxide Detector State Laws, Legislations & Requirements

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the second most common cause of non-medicinal poisoning deaths in the U.S. According to the CDC, over 10,000 people are poisoned by carbon monoxide each year and need medical treatment. Also, more than 438 people in the U.S. die annually from carbon monoxide poisoning.

With the number of illnesses and death caused by high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in homes and buildings, state legislatures have begun adopting laws mandating the use of carbon monoxide detectors. The mandate varies from every enclosed room being required to have detectors, to every room that has a smoke alarm to have a detector, with only day-care centers and group homes needing detectors.

A majority of states have enacted statutes regarding carbon monoxide (CO) detectors, and another 11 have promulgated regulations on CO detectors.

Please Note: The information referenced on this page is for educational purposes only. If you are a homeowner, landlord or tenant with questions about smoke alarm or carbon monoxide detector requirements in your area, please contact your state or local authorities for more information.